14 of the best lean manufacturing tools for improving productivity
Updated: Feb 9
We discussed in a recent blog post how lean can be applied in any industry. But when we talk about lean manufacturing, we refer specifically to the application of lean for manufacturing.
By applying lean tools, manufacturers can identify wasteful activities, problems and opportunities to improve productivity.
So if you're looking for ways to transform your manufacturing performance, here are 14 lean manufacturing productivity tools you need to know about.
Often, simply observing processes in action can reveal an abundance of improvement opportunities. This is the notion behind Gemba walks. Gemba is a Japanese term meaning “the real place” - i.e. where the work takes place. Going to the ‘Gemba’ is one of the most important elements of gaining process understanding. It’s often the first step in building a lean environment as it provides a springboard to process improvement opportunities.
Going to the ‘Gemba’ involves observing the processes first hand, taking pictures and videos, sampling parts, copying documents and speaking to the workers. It’s the only way you can really understand how effective and efficient your processes are. It’s easy to get bogged down in reports and focus on KPIs, but it’s simply not enough to rely on this. It’s about looking at the process in action from start to finish and seeing first hand what happens.
2. Error proofing
Errors can lead to defects. But errors are not inevitable. They can be eliminated with tools like Error proofing. Sometimes referred to by its Japanese term 'Poka-Yoke', Error proofing is a simple method that can be applied to detect and prevent defects.
It has three functions:
Shutdown - stop when defect is predicted or detected;
Warning - signals that defect is predicted or detected;
Control - prevent defects from occurring or from passing to next process.
Error proofing techniques usually include:
Limiting: Setting a limit or requirement that can’t be exceeded
Interlocking: Ensuring a combination of actions are undertaken where necessary to prevent an error occurring
Alarming: Giving some form of warning before or after a mistake has occurred
Housekeeping: Ensuring there is a place for everything and everything is in its place.
5s emphasises the importance of a clean, tidy and well-organised workspace to maintain optimum productivity levels and safety. It includes the monitoring and measurement needed to ensure that the workplace contains only what is needed, when it is needed, and where it is needed.
The implementation of 5s involves five ordered steps:
Sort - eliminate what is not needed
Set In Order - arrange items so they can be located quickly
Shine - keep tools and equipment ready to use
Standardise - implement standard ways of working
Sustain - keep to the rules and continue to improve every day.
Creating a Lean 5s workplace is necessary to ensure:
Time is not wasted locating equipment, searching systems, searching computers for files or documentation
Processing time is reduced as equipment, documents and information is within easy reach of the workplace
Time is not wasted as a result of equipment not working properly, such as machines, robots, printers, computers, vehicles, pc applications and systems
Safety is improved through having a tidy, uncluttered, clean and accessible workplace
To ensure visual controls can be easily seen and remain up to date within the workplace.
4. SMED ‘Single Minute Exchange of Dies’ / Rapid changeover
SMED - ‘single minute exchange of die’ - is a system designed to ensure quick changeover times of equipment. Changeover steps can be internal (the machine has to stop operating) or external (the machine can continue operating). The concept of SMED is that moving as many changeover steps as possible to external will reduce the changeover time to 'single' digits - i.e. less than ten minutes.
The benefits of SMED include:
Shorter equipment downtime at changeovers providing higher productivity
Increased machine/equipment/systems utilization
Reduced process lead time and customer wait time
Improved quality due to less storage related defects
Simpler, safer, better understood and standardised changeovers.
5. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
Equipment problems can have a dramatic impact on manufacturing operations. And this is where TPM comes in; it focuses on maximising the operational efficiency of equipment. All workers are empowered to play an active role in preventative and predictive maintenance, to ensure no breakdowns, no delays due to slow running equipment, no defects and no accidents.
TPM combines a 5s methodology with eight supporting activities, often referred to as ‘pillars’:
Focused improvement - small groups of employees working together to make regular improvements to equipment operation so problems can be identified early on
Autonomous maintenance - operators are given responsibility for routine maintenance tasks of the equipment they use, such as cleaning, oiling, inspection and diagnosis of potential problems
Planned maintenance - maintenance tasks are scheduled based on the historic failure rate of equipment and for times when equipment is not in use to reduce downtime
Quality management - ensures equipment is able to detect and prevent errors during production
Early equipment management - total life cycle costs are optimised as knowledge gained through previous TPM activities is used to improve the design of new equipment. Design for use by operators, design for maintenance and design for reliability minimises the risk of expensive and disruptive retrofits during and after commissioning.
6. Plan - Do - Check - Act (PDCA)
PDCA is a cyclical approach to continuous improvement which aims to improve the quality and effectiveness of a process. First championed by quality management pioneer W. Edwards Deming, it is also known as the Deming cycle, the Shewhart cycle, or Plan - Do - Study - Act (PDSA).
The PDCA approach emphasises that once improvements have been made we should seek out further improvements, and that this should be a continuous process.
Plan - Establish the objectives and processes necessary to make a change/improvement to solve a defined problem.
Do - Implement the plan in a small-scale test environment under controlled conditions.
Check - Monitor and evaluate the results against objectives and report the outcome.
Act - Apply any improvements needed and roll out the changes to a wider area. Update standard operating procedures and continue to monitor the process so the gains are sustained. Then move onto the next cycle of PDCA.
PDCA reinforces the importance of process improvement as an ongoing, iterative process.
7. Cause & Effect (Fishbone or Ishikawa) Diagram
When faced with a problem, it's crucial to identify the root cause before you come up with a solution. But with so many processes and so many possible reasons for a problem occurring, how do you even begin to know where to look?
The Cause and Effect or C&E diagram was first created by Kaoru Ishikawa in 1968 and is a team approach used to identify root cause relating to an effect. In a brainstorming session, all information is organised to show all the possible causes of a problem and the relationship among them.
Potential causes are grouped into categories, such as materials, equipment, people, environment, methods or measures. This gives structure to the diagram. It is also why it is often referred to as a ‘fishbone’ diagram - as this is what it looks like with the problem making up the fish head and the categories making up the body.
Once the diagram has been built, the 5 Whys method (see below) is used to identify the root cause of the effect.
8. The 5 Whys
The 5 Whys is a simple problem-solving technique that helps get to the root of a problem quickly. It’s a relatively simple method to use as it doesn’t require any data or statistical analysis. Anyone can use it so it encourages workers to be proactive in solving problems. The idea is that each time you ask ‘why’ a problem may have occurred you move closer to identifying a solution. But you don't need to stop at five... keep going until you get to the root cause. By peeling back the layer of symptoms you eventually get to the root of the problem. And save the hassle of the same problem occurring again and again.
The typical steps to conducting a 5 Whys analysis are: